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文本解读促理解,思维培养促升华

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文本解读促理解,思维培养促升华

核心素养为导向的概要写作微技能公开课课例

温州市滨海高级中学周齐

 

一.   教学设计与策略:

1.    教学设计的指导思想及依据:

基于学生为主体,教师为指导的教育思想,通过预测学情,预测可能性,使教学目标更加明确且可实施,教学效果更加明显并且能够较长时间持续。用“以生为本”侧重培养学生的核心素养中“思维品质”的理念统领教学关系,践行合作交流的学习方式。

2.    教学策略选择与设计

《普通高中英语课程标准(实验)》强调课程实施的实践性和开放性,倡导开放互助的教学方式与合作探究的学习方式,先对合作学习的对象分组,辅之以相应的激励策略等,以确保学生之间的有效合作,培养学生思维能力。

3.    教学目标

1.)通过本节课的教学,引导学生分析文本,进而读懂文本,根据文章写作逻辑脉络找出文章的基本结构以及每个结构部分内容,找出主题句或概括出主题句的方法,着力培养学生对于此类概要写作文本分析的的思维品质。让学生学会分类,概括信息,分析,推断信息的逻辑关系等能力。

2.)通过本节课的教学,让学生掌握:(1)主题句法;(2)找关键词法;(3)忽视非重要信息法(experiments/examples/statistic/ comparisons); 

3.)通过本节课的教学,让学生明白害羞是正常的生活表现,并该如何看  待以及解决害羞问题,树立对害羞行为的正确情感态度。

二. 教学内容分析:

本篇文章摘自《高中英语-进阶集训读后续写概要写作应用文写作》中概要写作部分,文章主要讲解了人们为什么会害羞及其解决办法,通过本节课,着力培养学生要学会写这一类型文章(phenomenon-cause-solutions)概要写作的思维方式。

三.学情分析(学习者特征分析):

1.害羞是人人皆知的日常行为表现,学生对此话题比较感兴趣,也有一定的生活阅历,接受起来较为容易。

2.文本的选取难易度适中,没有出现复杂词汇和超纲词汇,学生能理解文本,主题句也较为明显,使得绝大部分学生能够积极参与到本节课的教学活动中。

3.通过剖析文本,划分文章结构,学生能较容易整体把握文本内容,在解读文本过程中分析出此类说明文的基本写作结构,及Topic sentence + supporting ideas (doing experiments/examples /listing statistic / make comparisons)学生能够进一步掌握此类概要文章的写作方法,进而内化成思维模式,培养学生对于此类文章的思维品质。

四.教学重点及难点:

1.    理解文本,文体,划分文本结构(phenomenon-cause-solutions

2.    找出或归纳每段落主题句。

3.    解读文本,理解文本段落的组织架构,及topic sentence+ supporting information,以及supporting ideas的常用呈现形式。

五.教学过程:

Step1Introduction (Leading in):

Teacher: With so many teachers sitting around you? Are you feeling a little nervous and shy, don’t you? 

Student: Yes. / No.

Teacher: I think maybe most of you may feel a little nervous and shy, but what do you know shyness? Why people feel shy in their daily life sometimes? Are your deskmates shy sometimes? How do you help him/her overcome his /her shyness? How many people feel shy around you? Maybe most of you don’t have a clear idea about that. But I’m sure after this class, you may get a clear idea about those questions. Before we begin our class, I’d like to ask another question,Imagine you are requested to write an essay about shyness, how would you do? Now please discuss the question with your partners and then give me your answers.

Students1:If I write such an essay, first of all, I’d like to surf the Internet to search some information about why people feel shy? Then, I’d like to offer some suggestions on how to deal with that.

Teacher: Are there any other opinions? If so, please raise your hands to give me your opinion.

Students2: I’d like to write to write what the shyness is in the beginning, then why people feel shy. At last, I also will offer some practical solutions to do with it.

Teacher: Ok, so good ideas you offered. Thank you so much, smart boys. Now please skim the passage and finish the questions on paper sheet.

设计意图:(通过话题引入,让学生思考如何写此类文章,学生可以通过思考大概会想出此类文本的写作思路和流程,为接下来的教学奠定基础)

Step2Skim the passage and think what the writing style is.

Teacher: Have you finish your reading? Please tell me what the writing style of the passage. Is it an exposition, a narration, or an argumentation?

Students: It’s an exposition.

Teacher: Is there any different opinion?

Students: No, we’re very clear about that.

Teacher: Ok, fantastic. You have done a good job. Now, read the passage again, and try to clarify the structure of the passage.

设计意图:(通过快速阅读文章,确定文章文体,从整体上把握文章,以对比学生自己合作学习的成果,给予学生自我启发)

Step3Read the passage again and try to figure out the structure of the passage.

Teacher: Finish your reading? Please tell me the structure of the passage in your opinion, or in other words, how many parts can be logically divided.

Students: It can be divided into three parts.

Teacher: if it can be divided into three parts, what are they? Think about that, meanwhile you can discuss with your deskmate. I will ask you to answer that.

Students: Part one should be the first paragraph. Part two may consists of three paragraphs, that’s to say, paragraph 2 to paragraph4. And part three should be the last paragraph.

Teacher: why do you think so? I’d like to ask one student to answer. 

Student1: Because paragraph 1 mainly talks about the present situation of shyness. And paragraph 2 to 4 mainly talks about the reasons for one’s shyness. Paragraph 5 talks about the solutions.

Teacher: ok, fantastic. You have done a good job.

设计意图:(再次阅读文章,联系step1 部分让学生讨论的文章结构,可以使学生更好的整体把握,完成对文章主体结构的划分,使学生更好的理解文章,为接下来的文本解读奠定基础,把学生引入到phenomenon-cause-solutions,使得他们能自己总结出来。)

Step4Find out the TC of each paragraph. (Pay attention to the signal words)文本解读:

Teacher: Ok, all of you are so clever, I’m so delighted. You have already found out the structure of the passage, which I think is of great help for you to find out the topic sentences of each paragraph. Now let’s move to step 4: find out the TC of each paragraph. Ok, first of all, I’d like to ask you some questions. You can discuss with your partner first then answer those questions.

Q1: In your opinion, is there any SW words can be found according to the structure, and what are they?

Q2: Where do TCs usually lies in the paragraph?

Q3: What kind of words you should pay attention to in this process(linking words, time signal words, etc.)?

Q4: We have already concluded the structures of the passage, so what you should take notice of?

Students: ……

Teacher: Ok, I’m so glad you can give me so many good answers. Now, try to use what you learned to find TC of each paragraph. Whatever paragraph will be all right. But I suggest you begin with part 2, part 2 mainly talked about reasons, so maybe you can find some signal words (give them 5 minutes)

Students: Give their answers. Most of them found the TC of Para.2 /3. /4.

Teacher: Is there any SW of Para.1? Try to find them. (学生划出了These days Nowadays,确定了这两句应该是主题句),鼓励学生用同样的方法去找第三部分Solution的主题句,学生可以发现此段的主题句和第二段的主题句都在转折连词之后,得出结论。然后和学生一起分析文本,主题句之后的文本信息如何处理。For example

Teacher: How to deal with the other information of paragraph 2,what are they used for?

Is it possible to be born shy? Many scientists say yes. They say 15 to 20 percent of babies behave shyly. These babies are a little quieter and more watchful than other babies. Interestingly, these shy babies usually have shy parents. As a result, scientists think that some shyness is genetic.

Students: They are used for supporting the topic sentence. We can see that from the linking words (As a result…)

Teacher: Yes, you are right. But what the other information used for? The author lists some statistics to support his idea.

第二和第四段属于文章第二部分范畴,第二部分主要讲的是造成害羞的原因,所以学生可以关注文本中的能显示原因的SW含有此类SW的句子一般都是主题句。这样比较容易找出主题句。本部分主要让学生回答,学生觉得第二到第四段的主题句比较好找,如第三段family size might cause people to be shy too. 第四段中You may also be shy because ofwhere you were born.学生可以很容易找出划线的句子和本部分所述reason 一致。通过此步骤,和学生一起归纳出概括主题句所运用的小技巧;

Tip1: pay special to the time signal words when doing your summary writing.

Tip2: the topic sentence usually lies in the first or the last sentence of each paragraph.

Tip3:leave out the unnecessary or supporting information (experiment / statistics / examples / comparisons)

Tip4: pay special to the linking words 

设计意图:通过合作式的教学模式,提出问题,让学生讨论,并且老师通过问题的启发,训练学生思维能力,能够让给学生得出文本是由topic sentence +supporting ideas 所组成的,supporting ideas 的组成主要包括doing experiment /listing statistics / listing examples / making comparisons,这样有助于学生迅速找出主题句,把握每段落的主旨大意,理解文章,为概要写作奠定基础。

六.板书设计:

1.     The style of the passage: exposition

2.     How many parts can be divided? ---Four parts

Part1(para1): Phenomenon

Part2(para2-4): Causes

Part3(para5): Solutions

3.     Find out the topic sentences of each paragraph.

Para1:Now shyness is becoming common and scientists have some ideas about the reasons.

Para2:Scientists think that some shyness is genetic.

Para3:Family size might cause people to be shy too.

Para4: You may also be shy because of where you were born.

   Para5:Scientists suggest trying new things and practicing conversation.

七.教学反思

本堂课文本选取较为简单,教师以核心素养为导向,着重学生思维品质的培养,首先通过学生自主讨论,提出问题:如果你要写此类文章,你会怎么样写?采取何种结构?从而启发学生思维,这样学生基本上能够从整体的角度理解文章的篇章结构,划分层次,在老师的指导下能够推测出文本是按照phenomenon-cause-solutions的结构层次展开进而可以比较明显的看出文本可以划分为三个大的部分,我通过和学生一同探讨主题句的一般规律,使学生能够找出每个段落的主题句,为接下来的教学做铺垫;学生获得肯定后也更加积极的参与到课堂教学中,基本上实现了以学生为主体,教师起引导作用的新课改理念和目标。在文本的解读方面,主题句的确定上我给予的指导相对多了一些,一定程度上限制了学生的思维能力,感觉是教师在指导,而非引导;而且第一段和第五段的文本在解读过程中学生确定主题句还有偏差,认为主题句或关键句只能有一句,第一段的主题为phenomenon原本比较容易看出,可是由于是借班上课,我对学情没有完全考虑到位的,学生并没有很容易找出来;另外对于supporting information的构成experiment / statistics / examples / comparisons的导出有些粗糙,需要进一步思考如何在课堂教学方面自然过度到此环节。概要写作个人认为应该分为两节课来上,一节课用来解读文本,另一节课用来和学生一起探讨替换词以及选用合适连接词把文章有逻辑地联系到一起。不知道我这个想法是否正确?还是说如果学生基础相对较好,完全可以上成一节课的样子?请同仁给予指导,谢谢。

   

 

 

 

 

附上:概要写作原文和原本学案

经开区90学时培训公开课概要写作原文

  Are you shy? If you are, you are not alone. In fact, close to 50 percent of people are shy. Almost 80 percent of people feel shy at some point in their lives. These days, shyness is becoming more and more common. Now, scientists are trying to understand shyness. They have some interesting ideas about why people are shy.

  Is it possible to be born shy? Many scientists say yes. They say 15 to 20 percent of babies behave shyly. These babies are a little quieter and more watchful than other babies. Interestingly, these shy babies usually have shy parents. As a result, scientists think that some shyness is genetic.

  Family size might cause people to be shy too. Scientists at Harvard University studied shy children. They found that 66 percent of them had older brothers and sisters. As a result, they became shy. At the same time, children with no brothers and sisters may be shy as well. Growing up alone, they open play by themselves. They are not able to learn the same social skills as children from big families.

  You may also be shy because of where you were born. When scientists studied shyness in different countries, they found surprising differences. In Japan, most people said they were shy. But in Israel, only one of three people said so. What explains the differences? One scientist says the Japanese and Israelis have different opinions of failure. In Japan, when people do not succeed, they feel bad about themselves. They blame themselves for their failure. In Israel, the opposite is true. Israelis often blame failure in outside reasons, such as family, teachers, friends, or bad luck. In Israel, freedom of opinion and risk-taking are strongly supported. This may be why Israelis worry less about failure and are less shy.

  For shy people, it can be difficult to make friends, speak in class, and even get a good job. But scientists say you can get over your shyness. They suggest trying new things and practicing conversation. And don’t forget—if you are shy, you are not the only one.

 

Step1: leading in 

Step2: Skimming the passage and clarify the writing style(文体)

the writing style: An exposition(说明文)      (    )

              A narration(记叙文)          (    )

              An argumentation(议论文)     (    )

 

Step3: Skimming the passage and clarify the structure of the passage and what each part refers to 

How many parts can be logically divided? And what are they?    ________ Parts.

Part 1: Para. ________: The __________________

Part 2: Para. ________: The __________________

Part 3: Para. ________: The __________________

 

Step4: Reading for the topic sentences of each paragraph.

Para.1: _____________________________________________________________________

Para.2: _____________________________________________________________________

Para.3: _____________________________________________________________________

Para.4: _____________________________________________________________________

Para.5: _____________________________________________________________________

Step5: Classworktry to use your own words to replace the given ones of each part.usually the given time nouns, adjectives, verbs , some relevant phrases and clause can be replaced 

1. As a result, scientists think that some shyness is genetic.

2. Family size might causepeople to be shy. 

3. You may alsobe shy because of where you were born

Scientists ____________ that _________ and family size may ____________ one’s shyness. ________________(此外) , _______________ (出生地) may also among one of the reasons.

 

Step6: Use proper linking words to make a logical writing.