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概要写作课例(孙西丹)

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                                                     概要写作课例(孙西丹) 


一、课例背景

概要写作是浙江省新高考的作文考察形式之一,并进行了第一次考察。概要写作,简言之就是对所读过的文章简要概括,写出文章的中心大意。这一题型主要考查学生对文章主旨大意的概括和准确获取关键词的能力,同时考查学生用简洁的语言概括文章重要信息的能力以及对文章整体结构的把握能力。

二、课例分析

1、文本分析及改编

此次采用的文本为《新视野》的第一课《Left-handedness》。根据高考概要写作的文章要求,我对这篇文章进行了删减、替换个别词等修改。文章的主题为左撇子,第二段对右撇子的普遍现象进行论证,因此删去。最后一段讲述了左撇子节日的成立和庆祝,如果删去,对文章的内容影响很小,因此删去。学生不熟悉文章中as yet,可用已经学过的同义词so far来替代。文章修改完后,为325词,符合高考概要写作中文本的长度要求。同时,整篇文章的词汇都落在高考词汇表内,不需要改动。细读这篇文章,从中发现,文中信号词(signal words)较多。信号词在文中的作用是使文章的内在结构和关系显现化。因此,找准信号词,理解信号词在文中的作用和关系,有助于学生理解文章,然后进行概括。

2、学情分析

教学对象为温州市普通中学高一年级学生。学生英语水平较薄弱,对于非选择题形式的考题和练习存在畏难情绪。对于概要写作这一考试题型,更感陌生和无措。

3、教学目标

根据文本特点和学生水平,教学目标定为

(1)了解文章内容和结构

(2)利用信号词获取关键信息的能力

(3)明确主题句不等于段落大意

(4)利用关键信息写概要的能力

4、教学重难点

理解信号词的作用和意义,并应用于阅读和写作中。

理解主题句并不等于全部内容,再写概要时,需要补充一些要点。

5、教学过程

Step I Lead-in

两张图片(奥巴马左手签字,威廉王子左手写字),T: What do they have in common?

(设计意图:学生会根据图片和自己的理解给出多种答案, “左撇子”的答案也再学生给出的答案之中,自然而然引出话题。)

T:If you are asked to write a passage about left-handedness ?

(设计意图:引导学生进行头脑风暴,思考如果写左撇子,会涉及哪些方面的内容。教师将学生的答案写到黑板上。一方面唤起学生关于左撇子的背景知识,另一方面为阅读、归纳、整理文章结构作铺垫。学生能想到的答案有 reason, history, attitude, phenomenon, example, advantage, disadvantage)

 

Step II Reading

T:Which aspect is mentioned in the passage? Let’s read the passage, find out which is mentioned and number them.

(设计意图:让学生带着自己提出的要点去阅读、去印证,有助于调动学生的阅读积极性。同时,要求学生将提到的要点进行排序,那么文章的框架就能很清晰的呈现了。)

T:Which sentence is the topic sentence in Para 1?

  How can you get it quickly?

  Why does the author list so many famous people?

  Should they be included in the summary?

(设计意图:学生能借助信号词in fact很快找到主题句。因为该词出现时,后文是真正想要表达的内容。引导学生思考第一段中的名人的作用,思考是否需要将作为例子的名人概括到概要中去。)

T: Which sentence is the topic sentence in Para 2?

   How can you get it quickly?

(设计意图:学生在第一段的引导后,会很快关注信号词However, 并找到however后面的关键信息。)

T: What does “these connections” in the topic sentence refer to?

 (设计意图:帮助学生理清第二段的内容,并引导学生明白,概要的内容要清晰,慎用代词。引导学生思考,主题句是否等于一段的全部内容。)

 T: Which sentence is the topic sentence in Para 3?

    How many possible reasons are mentioned?

(设计意图:学生要从这一段中学会问句的作用,并了解主题句应该是陈述句。关注信号词 one…another…)

 T: What about the information after “however”?is it the key information for the 3nd paragraph?

(设计意图: 引导学生思考however的用法,与第二段中的however进行比较,理清however跟前面句子的关系,however和前面整个句群的关系。)

T: Which sentence is the topic sentence in Para 4?

(Whatever the reasons behind it, people’s attitudes toward left-handedness have changed a lot over the years.)

T: Do you think it tells the opinion clearly? What information should we add to the summary?

(设计意图: 引导学生思考主题句是否给出了足够的信息,是否需要再该段中找出必要的信息进行补充。再次引导学生关注but后面的关键信息。)

 

Step III Writing

T: Try to write a summary according to the topic sentence and some key information.

(设计意图:让学生尝试根据主题句和一些重要信息进行概要写作。)

 

Step IV Reflection

T: Let’s summarize the tips in writing a summary.

(设计意图:让学生回顾一节课中的阅读和写作技巧)

 

 

板书


Structure

Signal words

Key words

Para 1

Phenomenon (example)

In fact

a minority of left-handedness

Para 2

Phenomenon (connections)

However, other

Relationship, characteristics, occupations

Para 3

Reasons

one, another, (however)

The reasons

Para 4

Attitude

but

attitude changed

 

三、教学反思

本堂课教学目标明确,任务可操作性强。在文章的分析中理解信号词的作用和意义,并分析了同一个信号词的不同作用。教学过程中,引导学生明白主题句并不等于段落大意,纠正了学生的误解。这节课更聚焦于概要写作中的阅读部分,重在理解文章的内容、框架,获取每段的重要信息。基本达成了实现设定的教学目标。

本堂课也存在一些问题,例如信号词的使用规律归纳不到位,没有将同一类型的信号词进行整合。如果在信号词方面进行归纳总结,那么这堂课的指导意义就更大了。本节课的最大问题在于课堂形式单一,只有师问生答这一种形式,学生的兴趣较低。

 

 

附件:

What do Leonardo da Vinci, Marie Curie, and Albert Einstein have in common? They were all left-handed, along with other famous people including Brad Pitt, Prince William, and Barack Obama. In fact, an estimated 13 percent of the world’s population may be left-handed.

Many researchers claim to have found relationships between left-handedness and various physical and mental characteristics, such as blond hair, blue eyes, vegetarianism, and sleep difficulties. Other studies have found a higher-than-normal level of left-handed people in certain occupations, including professional baseball and tennis players, architects, lawyers, as well as prisoners. However, some of these connections are very weak, and others have not been proven.

What makes a person become right-handed rather than left-handed? So far, no one really knows for sure. One simple idea suggests that people normally get right-handedness from their parents. Studies have found that two right-handed parents have only a 9.5 percent chance of having a left-handed child, whereas two left-handed parents have a 26 percent chance of having a left-handed child. Another common theory is that left-handed people suffer mild brain damage during birth, which makes them left-handed. However, if this theory were true, it would not explain why the percentage of left-handed people is so similar in every society, when birth conditions vary so much from society to society.

Whatever the reasons behind it, people’s attitudes toward left-handedness have changed a lot over the years. Statistics show that although 13 percent of young people (10-20 years old) are left-handed, only six percent of the elderly are left-handed. Left-handed children used to be punished until they began using their right hand like other children, but today people who are left-handed are no longer looked down on nor are they considered abnormal. For most people today, either case is perfectly acceptable. There are even a number of shops now that specialize in selling products designed for left-handed people, such as left-handed scissors, can openers, guitars, and even a left-handed camera.